About Me (Nigel Chua)
My name is Nigel, and at a glance, I am:
Entrepreneur, Blogger at NigelChua.com, Health Supplement Enthusiast at XtendHealthAsia.com, Co-Founder at Urbanrehab Pte Ltd, Therapy Business Consultant at TherapyEntrepreneurs.com, Cryptocurrency & Dividend Stock Investor, Beginning Stoic Philosopher, Husband & Father =)
Wisdom Of Seneca, is a sort of “leveling up”, “coming of age” and “learning about quiet strength and wisdom”, which truly helped me see and put things in perspective especially during down times (pessimistic, negative, painful, anger, anguish moments), but I also read Seneca’s writings and works during my “up and positive” times as well.
It truly helped to ground me and keep me real, honest, sincere and for the lack of better word, more stoic to living life.
I really like the works of Seneca The Younger, and I hope this site helps and blesses you as much as it has blessed and helped me in my life, struggles, ups and downs.
Seneca the Younger
Seneca the Younger (c. 4 BC – AD 65), fully Lucius Annaeus Seneca and also known simply as Seneca (/ˈsɛnɪkə/), was a Roman Stoic philosopher, statesman, dramatist, and—in one work—satirist of the Silver Age of Latin literature.
Seneca was born in Cordoba in Hispania, and raised in Rome, where he was trained in rhetoric and philosophy. He was a tutor and later advisor to emperor Nero. He was forced to take his own life for alleged complicity in the Pisonian conspiracy to assassinate Nero, in which he was likely to have been innocent.
His father was Seneca the Elder, his elder brother was Lucius Junius Gallio Annaeanus, and his nephew was the poet Lucan. His stoic and calm suicide has become the subject of numerous paintings. As a writer Seneca is known for his philosophical works, and for his plays which are all tragedies. His philosophical writings include a dozen philosophical essays, and one hundred and twenty-four letters dealing with moral issues.
As a tragedian, he is best known for his Medea and Thyestes.
Early life and adulthood
Seneca was born at Córdoba in the Roman province of Baetica in Hispania. His father was Lucius Annaeus Seneca the elder, a Spanish-born Roman knight who had gained fame as a writer and teacher of rhetoric in Rome. Seneca’s mother, Helvia, was from a prominent Baetician family.
Seneca was the second of three brothers; the others were Lucius Annaeus Novatus (later known as Junius Gallio), and Annaeus Mela, the father of the poet Lucan. Miriam Griffin says in her biography of Seneca that “the evidence for Seneca’s life before his exile in 41 is so slight, and the potential interest of these years, for social history as well as for biography, is so great that few writers on Seneca have resisted the temptation to eke out knowledge with imagination.”
Griffin also infers from the ancient sources that Seneca was born in either 8, 4, or 1 BC. She thinks he was born between 4 and 1 BC and was resident in Rome by AD 5.
Politics and exile
Seneca’s early career as a senator seems to have been successful and he was praised for his oratory. Dio Cassius relates a story that Caligula was so offended by Seneca’s oratorical success in the Senate that he ordered him to commit suicide.
Seneca only survived because he was seriously ill and Caligula was told that he would soon die anyway. In his writings Seneca has nothing good to say about Caligula and frequently depicts him as a monster.
Seneca explains his own survival as down to his patience and his devotion to his friends: “I wanted to avoid the impression that all I could do for loyalty was die.”
In 41 AD, Claudius became emperor, and Seneca was accused by the new empress Messalina of adultery with Julia Livilla, sister to Caligula and Agrippina. The affair has been doubted by some historians, since Messalina had clear political motives for getting rid of Julia Livilla and her supporters.
The Senate pronounced a death sentence on Seneca which Claudius commuted to exile, and Seneca spent the next eight years on the island of Corsica. Two of Seneca’s earliest surviving works date from the period of his exile—both consolations. In his Consolation to Helvia, his mother, Seneca comforts her as a bereaved mother for losing her son to exile.
Seneca incidentally mentions the death of his only son, a few weeks before his exile. Later in life Seneca was married to a woman younger than himself, Pompeia Paulina. It has been thought that the infant son may have been from an earlier marriage, but the evidence is “tenuous”.
Seneca’s other work, his Consolation to Polybius, was written to console Polybius, one of Claudius’ freedmen, on the death of his brother. It is noted for its flattery of Claudius, and Seneca expresses his hope that the emperor will recall him from exile. In 49 AD Agrippina married her uncle Claudius, and through her influence Seneca was recalled to Rome.
Agrippina gained the praetorship for Seneca and appointed him tutor to her son, the future emperor Nero.
In 58 AD the consul Publius Suillius Rufus had made a series of public attacks on Seneca. These attacks, reported by Tacitus and Cassius Dio, include charges that in a mere four years of service to Nero, Seneca had acquired a vast personal fortune of three hundred million sestertii by charging high interest on loans throughout Italy and the provinces. Suillius’ attacks included claims of sexual corruption, with a suggestion that Seneca had slept with Agrippina. Tacitus though reports that Suillius was highly prejudiced: he had been a favourite of Claudius, and had been an embezzler and informant. In response Seneca brought a series of prosecutions for corruption against Suillius: half of his estate was confiscated and he was sent into exile. However the attacks reflect a criticism of Seneca which were made at the time and continued through later ages. Seneca was undoubtedly extremely rich: he had properties at Baiae and Nomentum, an Alban villa, and Egyptian estates. Dio Cassius even reports that the Boudica uprising in Britannia was caused by Seneca forcing large loans on the indigenous British aristocracy in the aftermath of Claudius’s conquest of Britain, and then calling them in suddenly and aggressively. Seneca was sensitive to such accusations: his De Vita Beata (“On the Happy Life”) dates from around this time and includes a defense of wealth along Stoic lines, arguing that wealth which is properly gained and spent is appropriate behaviour for a philosopher.
After Burrus’s death in 62, Seneca’s influence declined rapidly. Tacitus reports that Seneca tried to retire twice, in 62 and 64 AD, but Nero refused him on both occasions. Nevertheless, Seneca was increasingly absent from the court. He adopted a quiet lifestyle on his country estates, concentrating on his studies and seldom visiting Rome. It was during these final few years that he composed two of his greatest works: Naturales quaestiones—an encyclopedia of the natural world; and his Letters to Lucilius—which document his philosophical thoughts.
In AD 65, Seneca was caught up in the aftermath of the Pisonian conspiracy, a plot to kill Nero. Although it is unlikely that Seneca was part of the conspiracy, Nero ordered him to kill himself. Seneca followed tradition by severing several veins in order to bleed to death, and his wife Pompeia Paulina attempted to share his fate. Cassius Dio, who wished to emphasize the relentlessness of Nero, focused on how Seneca had attended to his last-minute letters, and how his death was hastened by soldiers. A generation after the Julio-Claudian emperors, Tacitus wrote an account of the suicide, which in view of his Republican sympathies is perhaps somewhat romanticized. According to this account, Nero ordered Seneca’s wife to be saved. Her wounds were bound up and she made no further attempt to kill herself. As for Seneca himself, his age and diet were blamed for slow loss of blood and extended pain rather than a quick death; he also took poison, which was also not fatal. After dictating his last words to a scribe, and with a circle of friends attending him in his home, he immersed himself in a warm bath, which was expected to speed blood flow and ease his pain. Tacitus wrote, “He was then carried into a bath, with the steam of which he was suffocated, and he was burnt without any of the usual funeral rites. So he had directed in a codicil of his will, even when in the height of his wealth and power he was thinking of life’s close.”
As a humanist saint
Seneca’s writings were well known in the later Roman period, and Quintilian, writing thirty years after Seneca’s death, remarked on the popularity of his works amongst the youth. However, while he found much to admire, Quintillian criticised Seneca for what he regarded as a degenerate literary style—a criticism echoed by Aulus Gellius in the middle of the 2nd century.
The early Christian Church was however very favorably disposed towards Seneca and his writings, and the church leader Tertullian possessively referred to him as “our Seneca.” By the 4th century an apocryphal correspondence with Paul the Apostle had been created linking Seneca into the Christian tradition. The letters are mentioned by Jerome who also included Seneca among a list of Christian writers, and Seneca is similarly mentioned by Augustine. In the 6th century Martin of Braga synthesised Seneca’s thought into a couple of treatises which became very popular in their own right. Otherwise Seneca was mainly known through a large number of quotes and extracts in the florilegia which were popular throughout the medieval period When his writings were read in the later Middle Ages, it was mostly his Letters to Lucilius—the longer essays and plays being relatively unknown.
Medieval writers and works continued to link him to Christianity because of his alleged association with Paul. The Golden Legend, a 13th-century hagiographical account of famous saints which was widely read, included an account of Seneca’s death scene, and erroneously presented Nero as a witness to Seneca’s suicide. Dante placed Seneca (alongside Cicero) among the “great spirits” in the First Circle of Hell, or Limbo. Boccaccio, who in 1370 came across the works of Tacitus whilst browsing the library at Montecassino, wrote an account of Seneca’s suicide hinting that it was a kind of disguised baptism, or a de facto baptism in spirit. Some, such as Albertino Mussato and Giovanni Colonna, went even further and concluded that Seneca must have been a Christian convert.
The “Pseudo-Seneca” a Roman bust found at Herculaneum, one of a series of similar sculptures known since the Renaissance, once identified as Seneca. Now commonly identified as Hesiod
An improving reputation
Seneca remains one of the few popular Roman philosophers from the period. He appears not only in Dante, but also in Chaucer and to a large degree in Petrarch, who adopted his style in his own essays and who quotes him more than any other authority except Virgil. In the Renaissance, printed editions and translations of his works became common, including an edition by Erasmus and a commentary by John Calvin. John of Salisbury, Erasmus and others celebrated his works. French essayist Montaigne, who gave a spirited defense of Seneca and Plutarch in his Essays, was himself considered by Pasquier a “French Seneca.” Similarly, Thomas Fuller praised Joseph Hall as “our English Seneca.” Many who have considered his ideas not to be particularly original, still argued he was important in making the Greek philosophers presentable and intelligible. His suicide has also been a popular subject in art, from Jacques-Louis David’s 1773 painting The Death of Seneca to the 1951 film Quo Vadis.
In 1562 Gerolamo Cardano wrote an apology praising Nero in his Encomium Neronis printed Basel. This was likely intended as a mock encomium, inverting the portrayal of Nero and Seneca which appears in Tacitus. In this work Cardano portrayed Seneca as a crook of the worst kind, an empty rhetorician who was only thinking to grab money and power, after having poisoned the mind of the young emperor. Cardano stated that Seneca well deserved death.
Among the historians who have sought to reappraise Seneca is the scholar Anna Lydia Motto who in 1966 argued that the negative image has been based almost entirely on Suillius’s account, while many others who might have lauded him have been lost.
“We are therefore left with no contemporary record of Seneca’s life, save for the desperate opinion of Publius Suillius. Think of the barren image we should have of Socrates, had the works of Plato and Xenophon not come down to us and were we wholly dependent upon Aristophanes’ description of this Athenian philosopher. To be sure, we should have a highly distorted, misconstrued view. Such is the view left to us of Seneca, if we were to rely upon Suillius alone.”
More recent work is changing the dominant perception of Seneca as a mere conduit for pre-existing ideas showing originality in Seneca’s contribution to the history of ideas. Examination of Seneca’s life and thought in relation to contemporary education and to the psychology of emotions is revealing the relevance of his thought. For example, Martha Nussbaum in her discussion of desire and emotion includes Seneca among the Stoics who offered important insights and perspectives on emotions and their role in our lives. Specifically devoting a chapter to his treatment of anger and its management, she shows Seneca’s appreciation of the damaging role of uncontrolled anger, and its pathological connections. Nussbaum later extended her examination to Seneca’s contribution to political philosophy showing considerable subtlety and richness in his thoughts about politics, education and notions of global citizenship and finding a basis for reform-minded education in Seneca’s ideas that allows her to propose a mode of modern education which steers clear of both narrow traditionalism and total rejection of tradition. Elsewhere Seneca has been noted as the first great Western thinker on the complex nature and role of gratitude in human relationships.
Seneca generally employs a pointed rhetorical style in his prose. His writings focus on traditional themes of Stoic philosophy. The universe is governed for the best by a rational providence, and this has to be reconciled with adversity. Seneca regards philosophy as a balm for the wounds of life. The destructive passions, especially anger and grief, must be uprooted, although sometimes he offers advice for moderating them according to reason. He discusses the relative merits of the contemplative life and the active life, and he considers it important to confront one’s own mortality and be able to face death. One must be willing to practice poverty and use wealth properly, and he writes about favours, clemency, the importance of friendship, and the need to benefit others.
Many scholars have thought, following the ideas of the 19th century German scholar Friedrich Leo, that Seneca’s tragedies were written for recitation only. Other scholars think that they were written for performance and that it is possible that actual performance had taken place in Seneca’s lifetime. Ultimately, this issue cannot be resolved on the basis of our existing knowledge. The tragedies of Seneca have been successfully staged in modern times.
The dating of the tragedies is highly problematic in the absence of any ancient references. A parody of a lament from Hercules Furens appears in the Apocolocyntosis which implies a date before 54 AD for that play. A relative chronology has been suggested on metrical grounds but scholars remain divided. The plays are not all based on the Greek pattern; they have a five-act form and differ in many respects from extant Attic drama, and while the influence of Euripides on some of these works is considerable, so is the influence of Virgil and Ovid.
Seneca’s plays were widely read in medieval and Renaissance European universities and strongly influenced tragic drama in that time, such as Elizabethan England (William Shakespeare and other playwrights), France (Corneille and Racine), and the Netherlands (Joost van den Vondel). He is regarded as the source and inspiration for what is known as “Revenge Tragedy,” starting with Thomas Kyd’s The Spanish Tragedy and continuing well into the Jacobean era. Thyestes is considered to be Seneca’s masterpiece, and has been described by scholar Dana Gioia as “one of the most influential plays ever written.” Medea is also highly regarded, and was praised along with Phaedra by T. S. Eliot.
Works attributed to Seneca include a dozen philosophical essays, one hundred and twenty-four letters dealing with moral issues, nine tragedies, and a satire, the attribution of which is disputed. His authorship of Hercules on Oeta has also been questioned.
Fabulae crepidatae (tragedies with Greek subjects):
- Hercules or Hercules furens (The Madness of Hercules)
- Troades (The Trojan Women)
- Phoenissae (The Phoenician Women)
- Hercules Oetaeus (Hercules on Oeta): generally considered not to be written by Seneca. First rejected by Heinsius.
Fabula praetexta (tragedy in Roman setting):
- Octavia: certainly not written by Seneca; this play closely resembles Seneca’s plays in style, but was written a short time after Seneca’s death (perhaps between 70-80 A.D.), by someone with a keen knowledge of Seneca’s plays and philosophical works. First rejected by Lipsius.
Essays and letters
Traditionally given in the following order:
- (64) De Providentia (On providence) – addressed to Lucilius
- (55) De Constantia Sapientis (On the Firmness of the Wise Person) – addressed to Serenus
- (41) De Ira (On anger) – A study on the consequences and the control of anger – addressed to his brother Novatus
- (book 2 of the De Ira)
- (book 3 of the De Ira)
- (40) Ad Marciam, De consolatione (To Marcia, On Consolation) – Consoles her on the death of her son
- (58) De Vita Beata (On the Happy Life) – addressed to Gallio
- (62) De Otio (On Leisure) – addressed to Serenus
- (63) De Tranquillitate Animi (On tranquillity of mind) – addressed to Serenus
- (49) De Brevitate Vitæ (On the shortness of life) – Essay expounding that any length of life is sufficient if lived wisely. – addressed to Paulinus
- (44) De Consolatione ad Polybium (To Polybius, On consolation) – Consoling him on the death of his brother.
- (42) Ad Helviam matrem, De consolatione (To Helvia, On consolation) – Letter to his mother consoling her on his absence during exile.
- (56) De Clementia (On Clemency) – written to Nero on the need for clemency as a virtue in an emperor.
- (63) De Beneficiis (On Benefits) [seven books]
- (64) Epistulae morales ad Lucilium – collection of 124 letters dealing with moral issues written to Lucilius Junior.
- (54) Apocolocyntosis divi Claudii (The Gourdification of the Divine Claudius), a satirical work.
- (63) Naturales quaestiones [seven books] an insight into ancient theories of cosmology, meteorology, and similar subjects.
- (58–62/370?) Cujus etiam ad Paulum apostolum leguntur epistolae: These letters, allegedly between Seneca and St Paul, were revered by early authorities, but most scholars now doubt their authenticity.
“Pseudo-Seneca” the name used for the uncertain authors of various antique and medieval texts such as De remediis fortuitorum, which purport to be by the Roman author. At least some of these seem to preserve and adapt genuine Senecan content, for example Saint Martin of Braga’s (d. c. 580) Formula vitae honestae, or De differentiis quatuor virtutumvitae honestae (“Rules for an Honest Life”, or “On the Four Cardinal Virtues”). Early Mss. preserve Martin’s preface, where he makes it clear that this was his adaption, but in later copies this was omitted, and the work became thought fully Seneca’s work.
Notable fictional portrayals
Seneca is a character in Monteverdi’s 1642 opera L’incoronazione di Poppea (The Coronation of Poppea), which is based on the pseudo-Senecan play, Octavia. In Nathaniel Lee’s 1675 play Nero, Emperor of Rome Seneca attempts to dissuade Nero from his egomaniacal plans, but is dragged off to prison, dying off-stage. He appears in Robert Bridges verse drama Nero, the second part of which (published 1894) culminates in Seneca’s death. Seneca appears in a fairly minor role in Henryk Sienkiewicz’s 1896 novel Quo Vadis and was played by Nicholas Hannen in the 1951 film. In Robert Graves’ 1934 book Claudius the God, the sequel novel to I, Claudius, Seneca is portrayed as an unbearable sycophant. He is shown as a flatterer who converts to Stoicism solely to appease Claudius’ own ideology. The “Pumpkinification” (Apocolocyntosis) to Graves thus becomes an unbearable work of flattery to the loathsome Nero mocking a man that Seneca groveled to for years.