Of Anger (Book 2)
De Ira (On Anger) is a Latin work by Seneca (4 BC–65 AD). The work defines and explains anger within the context of Stoic philosophy, and offers therapeutic advice on how to prevent and control anger.
It is not clear to scholars who wrote the first work on the subject of passions or emotions (the terms are thought interchangeable), but while Xenocrates (396/5–314/3 BCE) and Aristotle (384–322 BCE) were students at Plato’s Academy, a discussion on emotions took place which provided likely the impetus for all later work on the subject.
The Stoic Posidonius of Apamea (1st-century BCE) is considered the main source for Seneca. Other influences may have included works On Passions by the Stoic philosophers Zeno of Citium, Chrysippus, Aristo of Chios, Herillus, Antipater of Tarsus, Hecato of Rhodes, and Sotion.
Similar works had been written in the Peripatetic tradition by Aristotle, Theophrastus, and Andronicus of Rhodes; likewise works by Xenocrates (a Platonist), and by Philodemus (an Epicurean).